Classic Stereology Papers

These classical citations describe the historical development of unbiased methods to quantify the four main stereology parameters (N, L, S, V) and their variation. All of these papers passed rigorous peer review by editors and reviewers of the Journal of Microscopy, the main periodical for novel stereology research for the past five decades.

TOTAL OBJECT NUMBER, N (zero dimension, 0-D)

Unbiased Counting Rules. Gundersen HJG. (1977) Notes on the estimation of the numerical density of arbitrary profiles: the edge effect. Journal of Microscopy 111:219.

The Disector Principle For Estimation Of Object Number. Sterio, D.C. 1984. The unbiased estimation of number and sizes of arbitrary particles using the disector. Journal of Microscopy 134(2):127-136.

Optical Disector And Fractionator For Estimation Of Object Number. Gundersen HJG. (1986) Stereology of arbitrary particles. A review of unbiased number and size estimators and the presentation of some new ones, in the memory of William R. Thompson.
 Journal of Microscopy 143:3.

TOTAL OBJECT LENGTH, L (one dimension, 1-D)

Cycloids To Estimate Total Length On Vertical Slices. Gokhale A.M. (1990) Unbiased estimation of curve length in 3-D using vertical slices. Journal of Microscopy 159,133-41.

Sphere Probes (Space Balls) For Length Estimation On Arbitrary Sections. Mouton PR, Gokhale AM, Ward NL, West MJ. (2002) Stereological length estimation using spherical probes. Journal of Microscopy 206: 54-64.

TOTAL OBJECT SURFACE AREA, S (two dimension, 2-D)

Use Of Cycloids For Surface Area Estimation On Vertical Sections. Baddeley, AJ, Gundersen, HJG, and LM Cruz-Orive (1986) Estimation of surface area from vertical sections. Journal of Microscopy 142: 259-276.

Virtual Cycloids For Surface Area Estimation On Arbitrary Sections. Gokhale AM, Evans RE, Mackes JL, Mouton PR. (2004) Stereological estimation of surface area in thick transparent sections of arbitrary orientation using virtual cycloids. Journal of Microscopy 216: 25-31, 2004.

Use Of Cycloids For Surface Area Estimation On Vertical Sections. Baddeley, AJ, Gundersen, HJG, and LM Cruz-Orive (1986) Estimation of surface area from vertical sections. Journal of Microscopy 142: 259-276.

REGION VOLUME, V, (three dimension, 3-D)

Cavalieri and point counting method for volume estimation. 

  • Gundersen HJG, Jensen EB. (1987) The efficiency of systematic sampling in stereology and its prediction. Journal of Microscopy 147:229;
  • Gundersen, H.J.G., Jensen, E.B., Kieu, K. & Nielsen, J. (1999) The efficiency of systematic sampling – reconsidered. Journal of Microscopy 193, 199– 211.

MEAN OBJECT VOLUME, (three dimension, 3-D)

The Nucleator And Rotator Methods For Estimation Of Mean Object Volume

  • Gundersen, HJG. (1988) The nucleator. Journal of Microscopy 151:3-21.
  • Vedel Jensen, EB, Gundersen, HJG (1993) The rotator. Journal of Microscopy 170: 35-44.

Volume-Weighted Mean Object Volume On Point Sampled Intersections. Gundersen HJG, Jensen EB (1985) Stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean volume of arbitrary particles observed on random sections. Journal of Microscopy 158:127.

OTHER CLASSICAL CITATIONS OF INTEREST (in chronological order)

The Cavalieri Method For Volume Estimation. Cavalieri, B. (1635) Geometria indivibilibus continuorum. Bononi: Typis Clementis Ferronij; Reprint from: Geometria degli indivisibili. 
Torino: Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese; 1966.

The Needle Problem. Buffon, G.L. (1777). Essai d’arithmétique morale. Supplément à l’ Historie Naturelle Vol. 4, Paris, Impimerie Royale.

The Delesse Method For Area Fraction Estimation. Delesse, M.A. (1847) Procede mecanique pour determiner la composition des roche. Compte-Rendus d’ Academie des Sciences, Paris 25, 544-545.

The Corpuscle Problem. Wicksell SD. (1925) The corpuscle problem. A mathematical study of a biometric problem. Biometrika 17:84.

Fractionator Approach for Total Number of Rare Events (i.e., Rare Event Protocol). Mouton, P.R. (2011) Unbiased Stereology: A Concise Guide. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.